The specification of the stream format can be implemented by anyone without prior permission (Xiph.org reserves the right to set the FLAC specification and certify compliance), and neither the FLAC format nor any of the implemented encoding or decoding methods are covered by any patent. The reference implementation is free software. The source code for libFLAC and libFLAC++ is available under the BSD license, and the sources for flac, metaflac, and the plugins are available under the GNU General Public License.
The reference implementation of FLAC is implemented as the libFLAC core encoder & decoder library, with the main distributable program flac being the reference implementation of the libFLAC API. This codec API is also available in C++ as libFLAC++. The reference implementation of FLAC compiles on many platforms, including most Unix (such as Solaris, BSD) and Unix-like (including Linux), Microsoft Windows, BeOS, and OS/2 operating systems. There are build-systems for autoconf/automake, MSVC, Watcom C, and Xcode. There is currently no multicore support in libFLAC, but utilities such as GNU parallel and various graphical frontends can be used to spin up multiple instances of the encoder.
A study from late 2018 showed that going from ref=1 > ref=5 > ref=10 > ref=16 improved quality by 0 > 0.04 > 0.13 > 0.13 PSNR @720p with 100% > 135% > 179% > 223% encode time penalty. Note that 10 to 16 changed nothing due to true max capped at 8. For reference, we measure the difference of presets at the 0.x magnitude for PSNR.
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The low FODMAP diet (fermentable oligosaccharides, monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polyols) has shown to be effective in adult patients with irritable bowel syndrome, but there are few studies on paediatric patients. The aim of this study is to assess the implementation and the outcomes of a low FODMAP diet in the treatment of functional abdominal pain in children from a Mediterranean area. A table was designed in which foods were classified according to their FODMAP content, as well as a 'Symptoms and Stools Diary'. A prospective study was conducted on children with functional abdominal pain in our Paediatric Gastroenterology Unit. A total of 22 patients were enrolled in the trial, and 20 completed it. Data were collected of the abdominal pain features over a period of 3 days, and then patients followed a two-week low FODMAP diet. Afterwards, information about abdominal pain features was collected again. After the diet, they showed fewer daily abdominal pain episodes compared to baseline (1.16 [IQR: 0.41-3.33] versus 2 [IQR: 1.33-6.33] daily episodes, P=.024), less pain severity compared to baseline (1.41cm [IQR: 0.32-5.23] versus 4.63cm [IQR: 2.51-6.39] measured by 10-cm Visual Analogue Scale, P=.035), less interference with daily activities, and less gastrointestinal symptoms. Only 15% of patients found it difficult to follow the diet. The implementation of a low FODMAP diet for 2 weeks in a Mediterranean paediatric population diagnosed with functional abdominal pain is possible with adapted diets. It was highly valued by patients, and they showed an improvement in abdominal pain symptoms assessed by objective methods. Copyright 2018. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.
Functional abdominal pain disorders are highly prevalent in children. These disorders can be present in isolation or combined with organic diseases, such as celiac disease and inflammatory bowel diseases. Intestinal inflammation (infectious and non-infectious) predisposes children to the development of visceral hypersensitivity that can manifest as functional abdominal pain disorders, including irritable bowel syndrome. The new onset of irritable bowel syndrome symptoms in a patient with an underlying organic disease, such as inflammatory bowel disease, is clinically challenging, given that the same symptomatology may represent a flare-up of the inflammatory bowel disease or an overlapping functional abdominal pain disorder. Similarly, irritable bowel syndrome symptoms in a child previously diagnosed with celiac disease may occur due to poorly controlled celiac disease or the overlap with a functional abdominal pain disorder. There is little research on the overlap of functional abdominal disorders with organic diseases in children. Studies suggest that the overlap between functional abdominal pain disorders and inflammatory bowel disease is more common in adults than in children. The causes for these differences in prevalence are unknown. Only a handful of studies have been published on the overlap between celiac disease and functional abdominal pain disorders in children. The present article provides a review of the literature on the overlap between celiac disease, inflammatory bowel disease, and functional abdominal pain disorders in children and establish comparisons with studies conducted on adults. Copyright 2018 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.
This article analyses if and to what extent gender differences exist in abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) therapy. For this purpose Medline (PubMed) was searched from January 1999 to January 2018. Keywords were: \"abdominal aortic aneurysm\", \"gender\", \"prevalence\", \"EVAR\", and \"open surgery of abdominal aortic aneurysm\". Regardless of open or endovascular treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms, women have a higher rate of complications and longer hospitalizations compared to men. The majority of studies showed that women have a lower survival rate for surgical and endovascular treatment of abdominal aneurysms after both elective and emergency interventions. Women receive less surgical/interventional and protective medical treatment. Women seem to have a higher risk of rupture, a lower survival rate in AAA, and a higher rate of complications, regardless of endovascular or open treatment. The gender differences may be due to a higher age of women at diagnosis and therapy associated with higher comorbidity, but also because of genetic, hormonal, anatomical, biological, and socio-cultural differences. Strategies for treatment in female patients must be further defined to optimize outcome.
Se investigó la proporción de la expresión génica del receptor variable beta de células T (Vβ TCR) en linfocitos periféricos CD3+ en pacientes con lupus eritematoso generalizado (LEG) familiar y no familiar. El repertorio de Vβ TCR se estudió en 14 familias que presentaban más de un miembro con LEG. El uso de Vβ TCR en pacientes con LEG (n = 27) se comparó con el de los miembros sanos de estas familias (n = 47), con 37 pacientes con LEG esporádico y con 15 controles sanos. La expresión del repertorio de Vβ TCR se estudió por citometría de flujo multiparamétrica utilizando un arreglo de 24 diferentes anticuerpos monoclonales específicos de genes familiares para Vβ TCR. Se encontró el mismo perfil de expresión en las comparaciones entre los casos de LEG esporádico y familiar, así como en los consanguíneos sanos de las familias multicasos, que incluía una expresión incrementada de Vβ 5.2, Vβ 11 y Vβ 16, y una menor expresión de Vβ 3, Vβ4, Vβ 7.1 y Vβ 7. De manera interesante, solo Vβ 17 se expresó de modo diferente entre casos familiares y esporádicos de LEG. Igualmente, la expresión incrementada de Vβ 9 fue el distintivo entre los casos de LEG familiar (casos y consanguíneos sanos) y los controles sanos. Estos resultados refuerzan la noción de que el perfil final del repertorio Vβ TCR observado en LEG familiar y no familiar parece surgir de la interacción de factores genéticos, ambientales e inmunorreguladores, además de que pueden explicar las alteraciones inmunitarias que se observan en los consanguíneos sanos de pacientes con LEG. Copyright: 2018 SecretarÍa de Salud 153554b96e