Among his more recent film roles, Jackson appeared in Quentin Tarantino's Django Unchained, which was released December 25, 2012, Tarantino's The Hateful Eight, which was released in 70mm on December 25, 2015, and Jordan Vogt-Roberts' Kong: Skull Island, which was released on March 10, 2017. In 2019, Jackson reprised his Unbreakable role as Mr. Glass in the film Glass, and his Shaft role in Shaft, both sequels to his 2000 films. Also in 2019, he appeared in the Brie Larson film Unicorn Store, and had a prominent role as Fury in the Marvel film Spider-Man: Far From Home. Additionally, he reprised his role as Fury in a cameo appearance on the ABC television series Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D. in 2013 and the season finale in 2014.
Whatever the case, Sakai sustained serious wounds from the bombers' return fire. He was hit in the head by a .30 caliber bullet, which injured his skull and temporarily paralyzed the left side of his body. The wound is described elsewhere as having destroyed the metal frame of his goggles and "creased" his skull, a glancing blow that broke the skin and made a furrow it or even cracked the skull but did not actually penetrate it. Shattered glass from the canopy temporarily blinded him in his right eye and reduced vision in his left eye severely. The Zero rolled inverted and descended towards the sea. Unable to see out of his left eye because of the glass and the blood from his serious head wound, Sakai's vision started to clear somewhat as tears cleared the blood from his eyes, and he pulled his plane out of the dive. He considered ramming an American warship: "If I must die, at least I could go out as a samurai. My death would take several of the enemy with me. A ship. I needed a ship." Finally, the cold air blasting into the cockpit revived him enough to check his instruments, and he decided that by leaning the fuel mixture, he might be able to return to the airfield at Rabaul.
Today, there is increasing demand on highly-functional, manufacturable and inexpensive glasses (Tandia et al. 2019), which has led glass researchers to use data-driven machine learning models to accelerate the development of glasses and glass products instead of traditional trial-and-error approaches. In this context, data-driven materials discovery approaches use statistical models as well as ML algorithms, which are trained, tested, and validated using materials databases. An important part of this approach is to develop or access accurate materials databases at low cost. While it is in principle possible to use first principles approaches (thermochemical/thermodynamical simulations such as ab initio calculations based on quantum mechanics, density functional theory, molecular dynamics, or lattice models etc. (Van Ginhoven et al. 2005; Benoit et al. 2000)) to compute electronic band structure, formation energy and other thermodynamic parameters, the computations for technical products and an estimation of the properties by these methods still are prohibitively expensive and time consuming. From a mathematical point of view, composition of the design of new glasses can be seen as a multi-objective optimization problem with many constraints, which can be easily handled by an ML approach. (Hill et al. 2016)
Visual inspections for quality management are typically organized in an inspection process (determined in many cases by national or international building regulations), which probes the whole production process through several human-based controls of product-specific quality measures. Since humans in principle are unable to provide an objective result of a quality control due to their own bias (Nordfjeld 2013), uncertainty in objectification and repeatability of the quality measures is induced. It is thus preferable to supply a technological solution in the form of combining AI and computer vision to automate the quality inspection while minimizing human intervention. Within the scope of this paper an example for the objectification, systematization and automation of a visual product inspection for laminated glasses by the so-called Pummel test is presented. The Pummel test specifically characterizes the degree of adhesion between the polymeric interlayer and the glass pane of a glass laminate, where an optical scale ranging from 0 to 10 characterizes the level of adhesion. The resulting Pummel value thus delivers an indicator for the quality and safety properties of laminated glass, where a value of 0 quantifies no adhesion and 10 very high adhesion (Beckmann and Knackstedt 1979; Division 2014). The laminated glass specimen for the Pummel test consist of two float glass panes with a maximum thickness of 2 \(\times \) 4 mm. The specimens are exposed to a climate of \(-18^\circ C\) for about 8 h and subsequently get positioned on an inclined metal block and processed with a hammer (pummel). The Pummel value is then estimated by a human inspector based on the surface area of polymer interlayer exposed after pummeling (cf. Fig. 11-left). Further details on the Pummel test can be found in (Schneider et al. 2016; Beckmann and Knackstedt 1979; Division 2014).
Traditional image-based computer vision methods for evaluating the Pummel test extract image features using complex image pre-processing techniques, which in the experience of the authors based on conducted investigations on Pummel test pictures so far marked the main difficulties with these approaches. On the one hand, the proper choice of a performance metric on the pummel images (e.g. certain quantiles of the cumulative distribution function of grey-values or full color spaces of the images), which is invariant under the widely varying real-world situations for taking such a Pummel image with thin cracks, rough surface, shadows, non-optimal light-conditions in the room of pummel inspection etc., is demanding and led to no clear favorable function. On the other hand, the access to just a limited amount of labeled training image data formed another obstacle. To address these challenges, this paper proposes an AI-based classification tool (AI-Pummel Tool), which uses a deep convolutional neural network on grey-value images of pummeled glass laminates to completely automate pummel evaluation while excluding human bias or complex image pre-processing.
In the production and further processing of annealed float glass, glass panes are usually brought into the required dimensions by a cutting process. In a first step, a fissure is generated on the glass surface by using a cutting wheel. In the second step, the cut is opened along the fissure by applying a defined bending stress. This cutting process is influenced by many parameters, where the glass edge strength in particular can be reproducibly increased by a proper adjustment of the process parameters of the cutting machine (Ensslen and Müller-Braun 2017). It could be observed that due to different cutting process parameters, the resulting damage to the edge (the crack system) can differ in its extent. In addition, this characteristic of the crack system can be brought into a relationship with the strength (Müller-Braun et al. 2018). In particular, it has been found that characteristics of the lateral cracks, cf. Fig. 14 viewing the edge perpendicular to the glass surface, allow best predictions for the glass edge strength (Müller-Braun et al. 2020).
The challenge here is, however, to detect these lateral cracks and the related geometry in an accurate and objective way. Currently, this is conducted by manual tracing due to the fact that the crack contour can sometimes only be recognized roughly by eye. After manually marking the crack using an image processing program, the contour is then automatically evaluated further. Methods of AI and especially the algorithms from the field of AI in computer vision now can be utilized as an alternative to the existing manual approach to automate the step of manual detection of the glass cut edge. In addition to the enormous time and hence economic savings, the objectivity and reproducibility of detection is an important aspect of improvement. The topic of image classification in the context of computer vision and DL is well known (Ferreyra-Ramirez et al. 2019). As stated in the previous section of this paper, image classification is concerned with classifying images based on its visual content.
(1) View on the cut edge of two 4 mm thick glass specimens, a slight crack system, breaking stress: 78 MPa, b more pronounced crack system, breaking stress: 53 MPa and (2) Lateral crack to be detected: The crack contour can be difficult to identify Drass et al. (2020)
The model used for this example is an Extra Trees regressor (also known as Extremely Randomized Trees) (Geurts et al. 2006), which is similar to a Random Forest regressor. SciKit-Learn (Pedregosa et al. 2011; Buitinck et al. 2013) was used together with the default hyperparameter settings for the Extra Trees regressor without further investigation on the hyperparameter tuning. The single holdout method has been applied for splitting the data in training and testing data. Figure 17 show the residuals (in MPa) between actual and predicted edge strength separately for the training and validation data. Given the \(R^2 = 0.88\) in Fig. 17 it is concluded, that the obtained model describes the data well and the scatter is due to the dimension reduction from 25 to 13 features. On the other hand side from the validation data performance it is concluded, that alternative models calibrated with ML algorithms might be more suitable to better represent the data and the presented Extra Trees regress may lack of overfitting. A future paper will investigate in more detail an AI based model for predicting the cut glass edge strength (Fig. 18).
I too have a 2014 ML 350 and the windshield cracked all over from the slightest rock chip. I had the special coating installed at purchase so went through them and supposedly, they had Safelight install a certified Mercedes windshield. Before I could even get it to the dealer for calibration, you guessed it, another small rock bounced off it causing an immediate star crack that spread over the entire drivers side. Either Mercedes owners have really bad luck or there is a defect in the glass and tempering Mercedes uses. Time for a class action lawsuit. My 2006 Dodge Ran windshield is 1/3 the price and strong as steel. We are being ripped off. 2b1af7f3a8