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This PetroKnowledge training course charts a rich history of progress and innovation that has revolutionized the gas industry. From humble beginnings, the LNG industry and global trade have seen substantial growth in recent years. This LNG shipping course covers the transit of LNG cargos on voyages across the globe, which have become leading contributors to the energy mix and security of supply to existing and emerging energy markets.
With a view full eye on the future of this innovative industry, during this course, delegates will be afforded with the key aspects of LNG shipping, encompassing operational and commercial aspects through to technological advances and new applications.
Shipping is the heart of the LNG industry. Understanding the end-to-end key topics enables effective decision making for existing players within the industry and provides breadth and depth of knowledge for those new players looking to benefit from the opportunities presented in the evolving market.
The PetroKnowledge training course is suitable for professionals working within a management or technical function for an energy or shipping organization looking to broaden their understanding of LNG shipping.
Participants in this training course will receive thorough training during this seminar and practical group interaction, discussions, and exercises. Participants will develop the skills necessary to understand and effectively explore opportunities regarding LNG shipping and its key role within the LNG industry and global trade.
Participants will be able to identify the key points for consideration to effectively manage the LNG shipping process. This PetroKnowledge training course will cover a wide range of topics, including commercial, operational, and environmental aspects.
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The role of government and public authorities in initiating and enhancing the large-scale adoption of new technologies, and thus breaking the market-based chicken-and-egg dilemma, is a common theme in scientific research. For example, the academic literature includes studies on the effects of government programs for renewable energy (Loiter and Norberg-Bohm 1999; Åstrand and Neij 2006) and for clean energy vehicles, like electric cars, methanol-fueled vehicles, and compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles (Cowan and Hulten 1996; Chan and Chau 1997; Åhman 2006). Along these lines, some public authorities, like national governments or supranational bodies (e.g., EU), have started to promote the use of LNG as a ship fuel by establishing harmonized bunkering regulations/standards and financial support schemes. Moreover, we observe that public port authorities have found their responsibility to develop LNG bunkering facilities in their respective port areas. We will demonstrate that they are currently adopting a proactive role in facilitating this new application in the shipping industry.
The paper is structured as follows: section 2 firstly presents the theoretical foundation which leads port authorities to play a proactive role in promoting the maritime use of LNG, and then identifies the research questions and outlines research design which follows a rigorous methodological path for conducting a multiple-case study. Section 3 presents an extensive cross-case study to investigate how eight North European port authorities are presently developing LNG bunkering infrastructure and also conducts a discussion on the role of the evolving port function beyond the traditional model in promoting innovations. Section 4 draws conclusions and identifies the implications for managerial practice and the contribution to scholarly knowledge and finally discusses the research limitations.
Third, port authorities could develop a favorable innovation policy or tool to promote the maritime use of LNG. For instance, they could launch a pilot project to gain first experience, establish financial support schemes, and/or facilitate market introduction and knowledge diffusion.
Lastly, port authorities could act as proactive community managers by sharing knowledge and skills with stakeholders, by lobbying government in view of accelerating permitting processes, and by contributing to a positive public perception in the port community on the use of LNG as a ship fuel.
In section 3, we present the detailed empirical results of the multiple-case study on the eight North European ports to examine how these port authorities are currently developing LNG bunkering facilities. These results could modify the above initial assessment and should help in developing a set of port implementation policies on the promotion of LNG as a marine fuel in the shipping industry.
The eight ports each have their own development plans on LNG bunkering in line with different market expectations and operational conditions. However, given the capital intensive nature of LNG technology, they all opted for cooperation schemes as a way to share risks and gain confidence for market initiatives. The eight port authorities either have found or are looking for strategic partners to develop LNG bunkering facilities together. These strategic partners are mainly private industrial players, for instance, gas suppliers, bunkering operators, or gas shipping companies, who are the key investors and operators of the LNG bunker supply chain. In order to kick-start the market and solve the chicken-and-egg problem, Antwerp took the initiative to invest in a bunker vessel together with its strategic partner. Hamburg and Bremen are aiming to become the first users of LNG bunkering facilities by owning LNG-fueled port vessels.
Table 4 uses ticked boxes on a few parameters to show the main trends on how port authority enacts its landlord function to promote the LNG maritime use (see more detail in Appendix 4). All eight port authorities play a proactive coordinating role in performing feasibility studies on LNG bunkering (e.g., technical, regulatory, and market dimensions) together with various stakeholders in order to obtain confidence among market players to kick-start the business. The selection of a location for LNG infrastructure currently is a key problem faced by the ports. The LNG bunkering facilities would be better built close to the customers (e.g., shipping lines), while considering the safety issue of handling LNG as a dangerous cargo, some ports prohibit LNG operations in populated port area. Other ports are however up against the objections from the general public on the construction of LNG facilities near residential areas. Therefore, most of the eight ports together with their strategic partners intend to conduct comprehensive studies to choose the most favorable location for LNG infrastructure by taking into account all the safety, regulatory, social, and economic factors. Since the LNG technology is capital intensive with high risks involved, cooperation is an effective way to reduce/share the uncertainties over availability of infrastructure, LNG demand and price, etc. and to help break the chicken-and-egg market dilemma. The port authorities establish two types of strategic partnerships to promote the maritime use of LNG:The development of strategic alliances with other ports in the region (e.g., the strategic alliance between the ports of Rotterdam and Gothenburg) and even cross-region (e.g., the cooperation among ports of Antwerp, Zeebrugge, and Singapore) on developing LNG infrastructure and the associated safety and technical standards.The establishment of strategic partnerships with private actors, i.e., gas facility investors, terminal operators or gas suppliers, etc., for developing LNG onshore facilities and the bunker supply chain. The port authorities choose strategic partners either via public selection procedures or through private negotiation.
The function of community manager assumes a coordinating role of the port authority to solve collective problems in and outside the port perimeters, for instance, marketing and promoting innovations, etc. Table 6 examines the function of port authorities as community managers in promoting LNG as a ship fuel:Marketing and promotion on the maritime use of LNG. The eight port authorities use different ways to promote and market the maritime use of LNG by organizing conferences, seminars, and workshops or by sending handbooks or arranging meetings with the interested parties.Learning and sharing knowledge and skills with port stakeholders and even other ports. The structured interviews revealed that most of the eight ports intend to enhance interactive learning and knowledge sharing with their stakeholders by establishing various workshops or stakeholder platforms or developing strategic alliances with other ports in/or across the regions. For example, port of Helsingborg collaborates with other six ports in Baltic Sea to encourage interactive learning and promote the use of LNG as a ship fuel. Also, ports of Antwerp, Zeebrugge, and Singapore build a strategic alliance across the regions to sharing knowledge and skills on the development of LNG bunkering infrastructure.Lobbying government and raising public awareness. LNG is regarded as a dangerous cargo which mostly has not been regulated for the use as a ship fuel. Some port authorities play a more proactive role in lobbying the competent governmental authorities and raising the general public awareness in order to facilitate the permitting processes. 153554b96e